Conflict and Governance in the Middle East - Strona 2

Another important step for this period was Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. This occurrence created a real threat to Saudi Arabia, and led to the creation of large international coalition headed by the USA, that gathered its troops in the Persian Gulf. On 17th of January 1991, allied forces began operation "Desert Storm" lasted to 28th of February. In this time they destroyed most of the Iraqi army. And it is worthy to say, that Yasser Arafat advocated for losing – Iraq side before invasion. This political problem of PLO led to loss of political support from the Arab countries. This situation forced the Palestinians to start peace negotiations with Israel.

The United States after the war in the Persian Gulf “remained” in the Middle East. On 6th March 1991, President Bush had speech to Congress and he said about the New world order, what meant the U.S. announced the planned activity in the Middle East. What is another change in the policy pursued by the USA which has changed the situation in the Middle East.[31]

At the end of the Gulf War, a peace conference in Madrid in 1991 dealt with the Palestine question.[32] It was the first-ever public bilateral talks between Israel and its neighbors (except Egypt) were aimed at achieving peace treaties between the three Arab states[33] and Israel, while the talks with the Palestinians were based on a 2-stage formula, the first consisting of negotiating interim self-government arrangements, to be followed by permanent status negotiations.[34]{jcomments on}

However, one of the most important change which led to the real start of the peace process was winning in the parliamentary elections the Labour Party in June 1992. Israeli new Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin placed at the top of the national agenda the pursuit of peace with the Palestinians and the rest of the Arab world.[35] In January 1993, took place secret negotiations with representatives of the PLO in Oslo. The result was the signing by Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat “Joint Declaration of Principles on Palestinian self-government in the occupied territories.” in Washington D.C.[36] A key assumption of the declaration was the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza and parts of the West Bank and the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in those areas.

All in all, I can assume that changes from the late 80's and 90's that I mentioned were uncountable factors paving in a high degree the way to Oslo Process. First of all, changes of an international character was the growing importance of United States and USSR disintegration in the face of the approaching end of the Cold War. Which in turn resulted in a lack of support of the Arab countries by the USSR. We can also observe the change of the policy pursued by Yasser Arafat. Firstly, after the first intifada PLO recognized Israel right to exist within pre-1967 borders. Secondly, after the Persian Gulf War it began secret peace negotiations, which soon led to the Oslo Process. Another important change in this period was that U.S. started to concern in the area of the Middle East. And European countries were also engaged in settlement of the conflict in the Middle East through the involvement in the Conference in Madrid or help in the secret meetings in Oslo.[37] (865 words)

 Bibliography:

Books:

A. D. Korn, US-Soviet Negotiations of 1969 and the Rogers Plan, The Middle East Journal; Winter 1990; 44, 1; Research Library;

A. Dawisha, Requiem for Arab Nationalism, Middle East Quarterly Winter 2003,

I.Pappe, A History of Modern Palestine, Cambridge University Press, 2006;

T. G. Fraser, The Arab – Israeli Conflict, MACMILLAN PRESS, 1995;

Articles:

J. Slater, The Jewish State Controversy: Can Zionism Be Reconciled With Justice to the Palestinians?, 24.03.2011;

Jewish National Library, San Remo Conference

S. Katz, Black September, The PLO's attempt to take over Jordan in 1970, 1985;

W. B. Quandt, Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli conflict since 1967, The Brookings Institution;

Websites:

www.izrael.badacz.org;

www.un.org - the official United Nations website;

www.middleeast.about.com/od/documents/a/camp-david-accords-text.htm - The Camp David Accords texts;

www.palestinianfact.org;

www.mfa.gov.il - Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs; The War Of Attrition And The Cease Fire – Introduction, 13.08.2000;

www.pmo.gov.il - Prime’s Minister Office;

www.jewishhistory.org;

www.onwar.com, Black September in Jordan 1970-1971.



[1] J. Slaler, The Jewish State Controversy: Can Zionism Be Reconciled With Justice to the Palestinians?, 24.03.2011;

[2] I. Pappe, A History of Modern Palestine, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 67;

[3] T. G. Fraser, The Arab – Israeli Conflict, MACMILLAN PRESS, 1995, p. 8;

[4] Jewish National Library, San Remo Conference;

[5] T. G. Fraser, The Arab – Israeli Conflict, MACMILLAN PRESS, 1995, p. 10-11;

[6] Ibidem, p. 11;

[7] Ibidem, p. 12;

[8] www.jewishhistory.org;

[9]10, 000 per year and 25, 000 refugees;

[10]Yishuv - the body of Jewish residents in Palestine before the establishment of the State of Israel. – www.palestinefacts.org;

[11] I. Pappe, A History…, p. 107-8;

[12]also known as the June War, 1967 Arab-Israeli War, or Third Arab-Israeli War;

[13] T. G. Fraser, The Ara…, p. 86;

[14] A. Dawisha, Requiem for Arab Nationalism, Middle East Quarterly Winter 2003, p. 25-41;

[15] www.izrael.badacz.org;

[16] was a limited war fought between Israel and Egypt from 1967 to 1970;

[17] www.mfa.gov.il - Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs; The War Of Attrition And The Cease Fire – Introduction, 13.08.2000;

[18] D. A. Korn, US-Soviet Negotiations of 1969 and the Rogers Plan, The Middle East Journal; Winter 1990, Research Library p. 37;

[19] T. G. Fraser, The Arab…, p. 90;

[20] www.onwar.com, Black September in Jordan 1970-1971;

[21] S. Katz, Black September, The PLO's attempt to take over Jordan in 1970, 1985;

[22] T. G. Fraser, The Arab…, p. 95;

[23] also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War;

[24] T. G. Fraser, The Arab…, p.105;

[25] W. B. Quandt, Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli conflict since 1967, The Brookings Institution, p. 1;

[26]www.un.org - the official United Nations website;

[27] www.middleeast.about.com/od/documents/a/camp-david-accords-text.htm - The Camp David Accords texts;

[28] T. G. Fraser, The Arab…, p. 136

[29] www.palestinianfact.org

[30] www.un.org;

[31] http://www.al-bab.com, President Bush's speech to Congress, 1991;

[32] I. Pappe, A History…, p. – 239;

[33] SyriaLebanon, and Jordan;

[36] known as the Oslo Agreement ;

[37]http://www.regjeringen.no - Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, official website.



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